Article: Association of Cardio-respiratory Fitness with Long-term Mortality among Adults Undergoing Exercise Treadmill Testing.
Authors: Kyle Mandsager, MD; Serge Harb, MD; Paul Cremer, MD; Dermot Phelan, MD, PhD; Ste- ven E. Nissen, MD; Wael Jaber, MD.
Journal: JAMA Network Open. 2018; 1(6):e183605. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.3605. Publication Date: October 19, 2018
Take home message: Not exercising may be worse for your health than smoking.

Article: Sedentary Time and Its Association with Risk for Disease Incidence, Mortality, and Hospitalization in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Authors: Aviroop Biswas, BSc; Paul I. Oh, MD, MSc; Guy E. Faulkner, PhD; Ravi R. Bajaj, MD; Michael A. Silver, BSc; Marc S. Mitchell, MSc; David A. Alter, MD, PhD.
Journal: Annals of Internal Medicine. 2015
Publication Date: January 20, 2015
Take home message: Prolonged sitting is linked to serious health risks and death.

Article: ‘Exercise snacks’ before meals: a novel strategy to improve glycemic control in individualswith insulin resistance.
Authors: Francois ME, Baldi JC, Manning PJ, Lucas SJ, Hawley JA, Williams MJ, Cotter JD. Journal: Diabetologia. July 2014
Epublication: May 10, 2014
Take home message: Brief intense exercise before each meal improved blood sugar levels better than 30 minutes of less intense exercise once a day. Move frequently throughout the day.
Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24817675

Article: The Short Term Musculoskeletal and Cognitive Effects of Prolonged Sitting
Authors: Richelle Baker, MD, Pieter Coenen, PhD, Erin Howie, UofA asst prof of Health, Ann Williamson, RN, PhD, and Leon Straker, Prof Physiotherapy and Exercise Science Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Publication Date: August 7, 2018
Take Home Message: Prolonged sitting (2 hours) increases discomfort in the low back and buttocks areas and deteriorates cognitive problem solving.

Article: You Don’t Need to Exercise, You Just Need to Move Author: Molly Rubin, Journalist
Journal: Quartz Magazine.
Publication Date: June 13, 2019
Take Home Message: Breaking up your day with small bursts of movement can reduce your risk of early death by up to 35 percent.

Article: Acute effects on cognitive performance following bouts of standing and light-intensity physical activity in a simulated workplace environment.
Authors: Sarah L. Mullane, Matthew P. Buman, Zachary S. Zeigler, Noe C. Crespo, Glenn A. Gaesser; School of Nutrition and Health Promotion, Arizona State University.
Journal: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 489–493. Publication Date: May 2017
Take home message: Taking breaks from sitting to stand or walk can improve attention and memory.

Article: Exercise and the Prevention of Depression: Results of the HUNT Cohort Study.
Authors: Samuel B. Harvey, F.R.A.N.Z.C.P., PhD, Simon Overland, PhD, Stephani L. Hatch, PhD, Simon Wessely, F.R.C.Psych., MD, Arnstein Mykletun, PhD, Matthew Hotopf, F.R.C. Psych., PhD Journal: American Journal of Psychiatry, Volume 175, Issue 1, pp. 28-36.
Publication Date: January 01, 2018
Take home message: A consistent habit of enjoyable exercise can reduce the risk of depression.

Article: Sitting Disease: Too Much Sitting Is the New Smoking Author: Greg Okhifun, Assoc. Editor
Journal: Corporate Wellness Magazine.
Publication Date: March 13, 2019
Take Home Message: Prolonged sitting has adverse effects on breathing, blood circulation, and posture, increasing the risk of several diseases.

Article: Effects of Different Doses of Physical Activity on Cardiorespiratory Fitness among Sedentary, Overweight or Obese Postmenopausal Women with Elevated Blood Pressure.
Authors: Timothy S. Church, MD, MPH, PhD; Conrad P. Earnest, PhD; James S. Skinner, PhD; Steven N. Blair, PED.
Journal: JAMA, 297:2081-2091.
Publication Date: 2007
Take home message: Exercise like medicine has a dose. Exercising even ten minutes a day improvesfitness.

Article: The Benefits of Exercise for the Clinically Depressed.
Authors: Lynette L. Craft, PhD and Frank M. Perna, EdD, PhD. From the Division of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA.
Journal: Primary Care Companion to the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 6(3): 104–111.
Publication Date: 2004
Take home message: Exercise has an anti-depressant effect that can be used as part of a treatment plan for depression.

Article: Changes in Physical Fitness and All-Cause Mortality: A Prospective Study of Healthy and Unhealthy Men.
Authors: Steven N. Blair, PED; Harold W. Kohl III, PhD; Carolyn E. Barlow, MS; Ralph Paffenbarger, Jr. MD, PhD; Larry W. Gibbons, MD, MPH; Caroline A. Macera, PhD.
Journal: JAMA, Vol 273, No. 14.
Publication Date: April 12, 1995
Take home message: Death rates are lower in men with improved fitness. In fact, in this study therisk of death declined every minute they increased treadmill walking time.

Article: Cardiovascular responses to upper body exercise in normal and cardiac patients. Authors: Miles DS, Cox MH, Bomze JP.
Journal: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 21(5 Suppl):S126-31. Publication Date: October 1989
Take home message: Cardiovascular power is increased by adding arm movements to an exercise program.

Article: Physical Activity, All-Cause Mortality, and Longevity of College Alumni.
Authors: Ralph S. Paffenbarger, Jr. MD, PhD; Robert Hyde, MA; Alvin L. Wing, MBA; Chung-cheng Hsieh, ScD.
Journal: New England Journal of Medicine, 314:605-613.
Publication Date: 1986
Take home message: In people between the ages of 35-74, who were followed for 12-16 years, death rates declined as activity levels increased to 500 calories per day. Exercising consistently throughout a life span has been shown to add one to two years of life in 80-year-olds in comparison to sedentary inactive counterparts of the same age. Be active; stay active.

Article: How Simply Moving Benefits Your Mental Health Author: Srini Pillay, MD
Journal: Harvard Health Publishing
Publication Date: March 28, 2016
Take Home Message: People with attention deficit disorder (ADHD) showed improvement after only a 20-minute bout of moderate exercise.

Article: Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase, a Molecular Transducer of Health Benefits of Exercise.Authors: Zhen Yan, PhD and Hannah R. Spaulding, CTRS/R
Journal: Redox Biology
Publication date: March 19, 2020
Take home message: Antioxidant indicators tend to increase, and pro-oxidant indicators tend to decrease after exercise.

Article: Get Off the Couch Baby Boomer, or You May Not Be Able to Later
Author: Patti Neighmond, Health Policy Correspondent. Geo. Foster Peabody Award and others News Program: Shots—Health News, NPR.
Air Date: September 4, 2017
Take Home Message: Sitting and watching TV for long periods, especially in the evening, has got to be one of the most dangerous things older people can do.

Article: Heal Yourself with Qigong
Author: P.J. Klein, PT, EdD and J. Baumgarden, DPT
Report: Know the Evidence, 2017
Take Home Message: Medical practitioners at Harvard Medical School touted the health benefits ofqigong as valuable in physical rehabilitation.

Title: Moving with Ease: A Physicians Guide to Being More Active Author: Theresa Oswald, MD
Blog: Amrit Blog.
Publication Date: December 4, 2018
Take Home Message: Inactivity is the fourth highest health risk, after high blood pressure, tobacco use, and high cholesterol.